International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education
Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Pages: 35-42

The Impact of Diversity and Gender on EPS Withdrawal of Humanities Students at Catholic Schools in Kinshasa

Agnès Kena Lubuka1, Paulin Mandoumou2, Aristide Ewamela2, Michael Ha3, *, Danny Lo4, Euloge Moboza Ndongo5, Joachim Bongbele1, 2

1Department of Physical Education and Sports Management, Faculty of Science, National Pedagogical University, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

2Laboratory of Didactic of Physical Activities and Sports, Higher Institute of Physical Education from the University Marien Ngouabi, Congo-Brazzaville

3Sino-US College, Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, China

4College of Business & Public Management, Wenzhou-Kean University, Wenzhou, China

5Teaching Staff of Information Technologies and Communication and Sports Management, Higher Institute of Physical Education from the University Marien Ngouabi, Congo-Brazzaville

Email address:

(M. Ha)

*Corresponding author

To cite this article:

Agnès Kena Lubuka, Paulin Mandoumou, Aristide Ewamela, Michael Ha, Danny Lo, Euloge Moboza Ndongo, Joachim Bongbele. The Impact of Diversity and Gender on EPS Withdrawal of Humanities Students at Catholic Schools in Kinshasa. International Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 35-42. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsspe.20160103.12

Received: October 8, 2016; Accepted: January 6, 2017; Published: January 31, 2017


Abstract: In this study, we examine the impact of diversity and gender on EPS (Education Physique et Sportive, French for Physical and Sports Education) disengagement in humanities students of Catholic schools in Kinshasa. 2 groups of students were randomly selected for this study. 305 girls and 456 boys from a co-ed Catholic schools that took a weekly 50-minute EPS lesson formed the experimental group (EG) while 116 girls and 133 boys of the Joint Physical Education section and consular schools, subjected to 3 weekly hours of EPS formed the control group, CG. All volunteers answered two questionnaires of gender diversity in EPS (both general and gender-specific). The collected data were analyzed and subjected to the Student t-test. The results show that the subjects in the two groups had significantly different values regarding masculinity of EPS, EPS for all, the usefulness of endurance in APSA (Activités Physiques, Sportives et Artistiques, French for Physical, Sports & Artistic Activities) practice, the need of agility in APSA practice, gender-specific APSA, gender-equality in football and agility-similarity of boys and girls in dancing (P<0.001). Furthermore, the disengagement was significantly higher in the experimental group for both genders compared with their counterparts in the control group (10.2 ± 1.26 vs. 1.41 ± 0.49 and 7.93 ± 1 25 vs 0.64 ± 0.76) (P <0.001). These results suggest that the adverse effects of didactic contract, low self-esteem, diversity and gender constitute didactic, psychological and sociological factors of EPS disengagement in humanities students at Kinshasa’s Catholic schools.

Keywords: Gender Equality, EPS Disengagement, Humanities Students, Catholic Schools, Kinshasa


1. Introduction

1.1. Problem

Diversity is similar to equity irrespective of the rights of all who deserve protection. Up to now, some religious groups are combatting unsuspected unequal mechanism [1].

Moreover, diversity allows girls to learn alongside boys to know them and thus create a favorable feeling for learning. In this regard, Cogerino [2] revealed that high school boys and girls look for ways to forge links and mingle. In addition, inequalities are implemented by some teachers valuing boys over girls. Exclusively against, the idea to promote diversity through an activity qualified for female or for male rebuilds inequalities in a subtle way. Similarly, gender difference with a social connotation, could have a school’s involvement and particularly during EPS.

1.2. Question

Do diversity and gender have an impact on the disengagement EPS among humanities students of Catholic schools in Kinshasa?

1.3. Hypothesis

Diversity and gender in EPS favor the disengagement of humanities students in Kinshasa.

1.4. Work Goals

The objectives of this study are:

1. To identifying absences to determine the EPS disengagement level among humanities students of Kinshasa;

2. To collect the opinions of humanities students of Catholic schools in Kinshasa on diversity and gender in EPS; and

3. To appreciate the impact of diversity and gender on EPS disengagement among humanities students of Kinshasa.

1.5. General Interest of the Study

This study promotes success for all and broadens relationships with others by learning to combat stereotypes and discriminatory attitudes among humanities students in Kinshasa and elsewhere.

2. Methods

2.1. Participants

The source population was 1322 students (528 girls and 794 boys) from Kinshasa’s two school divisions which are conventional or private schools and public schools. All these students were invited to participate voluntarily in this study.

2.1.1. Features

The participants who accepted the invitation were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG) consists of students attending Catholic schools co-ed literary sections (Latin-Philosophy), science (Mathematics, Physics & Biochemistry) submitted to a weekly 50-minute EPS lesson and a control group (CG) including those in the Physical Education section of a Catholic school and consular schools subjected to 3 hours of weekly EPS. The eligibility criteria were regularity during EPS by reference to the call notebooks kept by teachers and acceptance to respond to questionnaires. Restrictions based on demographic characteristics reflect the existence in the city of Kinshasa with only one co-ed Catholic school in town, a co-ed school with EPS section and 4 consular schools.

2.1.2. Sampling Procedure

The sampling technique was conducted according to a non-random model taking into account the voluntary nature of the respondents.

2.1.3. Sampling Size

The study focused on a sample of 1010 subjects including 305 girls and 456 boys in the experimental group (EG) and 116 girls and 133 boys control group (CG).

2.2. Investigation

Two complementary approaches were used: A pre-survey and an actual survey

2.2.1. Pre-survey

The pre-survey allowed us to:

1. check the conformity of hypothetical links to the observed variables for statistical analyses;

2. interpret the setting up of hypothesis-testing starting from closely related variables;

3. validate the questionnaires using Cronbach’s alpha [α = 0.85 (boys and girls), α = 0.87 (girls) and α = 0.99 (boys)].

2.2.2. Survey

Conducted from 15 April to 15 May 2013, the survey consisted of:

1. a classroom presentation of the questionnaire on gender equality and gender in EPS with a series of statements to students during EPS hours;

2. student advising;

3. guarantee of participants’ anonymity;

4. a delivery of questionnaire forms to Physics Education teachers for distribution to students;

5. a collection of answered questionnaire forms after a week.

2.3. Statistical Data Analysis

Although the early part of this study is qualitative, the questionnaires were analyzed by using the Likert scale [3]. This allowed us to use descriptive statistics to better characterize the sample values using the Microsoft Excel software. The Student's T-test was used for mean comparison [4].

3. Results

The results provided by the female participants in the 2 groups are shown in Table 1 expressed in the form of mean and standard deviation (±δ). The items are sexual perception of the EPS, the usefulness of physical quality, gender-based APSA practice, fairness in football, agility level in dance and EPS disengagement.

Table 1. Female Participants Sexual Perception of EPS, the usefulness of physical, sexual practice of APSA, fairness in football, agility in dance and EPS disengagement as mean and standard deviation (±δ).

  Experimental Group Control Group Significance
  (n= 305)   (n= 116)   T P
Masculinity EPS 1.81±0.49*** 1.10±0.31 5.40 <0.001
Femininity of EPS 1.10±0.67 1.07±0.25 0.67 NS
EPS for all 3.80±0.67 5.79±0.41*** 36.89 <0.001
Need of agility in the practice of APSA 4.47±0.60 4.54±2.94 0.39 NS
Usefulness of endurance in the practice of APSA 2.75±0.66 4.47±0.50*** 28.76 <0.001
APSA for girls 2.41±0.75 3.41±0.49*** 13.32 <0.001
APSA for boys 5.60±2.41*** 1.16±0.36 38.94 <0.001
Fairness in girls and boys football 2.21±0.41 3.49±1.83*** 11.53 <0.001
Similarity agility of boys and girls to dance 2.48±0.50 2.69±0.46*** 4.08 <0.001
Disengagement 10.2±1.26*** 1.41±0.49 03 <0.001

NS: no significant difference

*** Highly significant difference (P <0.001)

The results of the analysis of the EPS perception shown in Table 1 illustrate that masculinity of EPS and students disengagement in EPS lessons were highly significant among the experimental subjects (EG) compared to the views raised by their colleagues in the control group (CG) (P <0.001). As for the EPS for all, the need for agility in APSA practice, APSA for girls and boys, the results of the judgments of the control group were highly significant compared to the assertions of their counterparts in the experimental group (P <0.001).

In the same form expressed as mean plus or minus standard deviation (±δ), Table 2 presents the sexual perception of the EPS, the usefulness of physical, gender-based practice of APSA, fairness in football, agility in dance and disengagement in EPS provided by the male participants in the experimental and control groups

Table 2. Male Participants Sexual Perception of EPS, the usefulness of physical, sexual practice of APSA, fairness in football, agility in dance and EPS disengagement as mean and standard deviation (±δ).

  Experimental Group Control Group Significance
  (n= 456) (n= 133) t P
Masculinity EPS 1.26±0.32*** 1.03±0.17 8.04 <0.001
Femininity of EPS 1.07±0.46 1.19±0.39 1.82 NS
EPS for all 4.88±0.90 5.94±0.25*** 22.36 <0.001
Need of agility in the practice of APSA 2.08±0.28 5.69±0.49*** 81.19 <0.001
Usefulness of endurance in the practice of APSA 2.11±0.31 5.67±0.49*** 79.30 <0.001
APSA for girls 3.10±0.3 5.47±0.52*** 66.44 <0.001
APSA for boys 1.99±0.29 3.59±0.75 *** 37.04 <0.001
Fairness in girls and boys football 1.05±0.23 1.06±0.21 0.47 NS
Similarity agility of boys and girls to dance 2.08±0.28 2.48±0.50 1.62 NS
Disengagement 7.93±1.25*** 0.64±0.76 82.7 <0.001

NS: no significant difference

*** Highly significant difference (P <0.001)

The analysis of Table 2 reveals that the masculinity of EPS, APSA for boys and students disengagement in EPS were highly significant among the students in the experimental group (EG) compared to the results obtained from their counterparts in the control group (CG) (P <0.001). There also existed a highly significant difference between the experimental and control groups (P <0.001) for EPS for all, the usefulness of endurance in APSA practice, APSA for girls, equality and fairness in football and dance. The femininity of EPS, and the need of agility in the practices of APSA had not presented significant differences among both subjects in the EG than their counterparts in the CG (P <0.001).

Table 3 contains, as mean ± standard deviation (±δ), the views of girls in the experimental and control groups on evil conduct, practice quality and duration, aggression and EPS withdrawal.

Table 3. Opinions of female participants in the experimental and control groups regarding perverse behavior, practice quality and duration, aggression and EPS withdrawal, as mean and standard deviation (±δ).

  Experimental Group Control Group Significance
  (n= 305) (n= 116) T P
Boys violence against girls 5.55±0.54*** 2.41±0.49. 13.46 <0.001
Boys foul play in EPS 5.45±8.25*** 1.40±0.49 8.25 <0.001
Boys gossip in EPS 5.90±0.30*** 3.20±0.40 65.98 <0.001
Sufficiency boys EPS 4.92±1.19*** 3.20±0.40 65.98 <0.001
Best game of boys in EPS 5.73±0.44*** 4.21±0.75 20.52 <0.001
Significant period of football games 5.53±0.91*** 2.39±0.49  45 <0.001
Performance against boys in EPS / excellent football and running. 5.38±0.51 5.41±0.41 0.5l5 NS
Lack of sportsmanship among boys 5.53±0.50*** 2.80±0.40 58.21 <0.001
Violence boys in the class group 5.48±0.60*** 2.40±0.49 6.27 <0.001
Disengagement 10.2±1.26*** 1.41±0.49 103 <0.001

NS: no significant difference

*** Highly significant difference (P <0.001)

In Table 3, one can see that the female participants girls in the experimental group raised significantly higher values compared to those in the control group with regard to boys violence against girls, boys foul play in EPS, the chatter of boys during EPS, boys self-sufficiency in EPS, the best game of boys in EPS, the long duration of football games, boys’ lack of sportsmanship, boys violence in class group and disengagement (P <0.001). However, there is no significant difference between the subjects in the two groups (EG and CG) regarding the performance against boys in EPS/Excellency football and running

The opinions of the boys in the experimental and control groups on performance, application, behavior and girls’ EPS disengagement in co-ed classes are contained as mean and standard deviation (±δ) in Table 4.

Table 4. Reviews boys experimental and control groups on performance, application, behavior and girls EPS disengagement in co-ed classes as mean and standard deviation (±δ).

  Experimental Group Control Group Significance
  (n= 456) (n= 133) T P
Weaker performance of girls EPS 5.52±0.52*** 4.65±0.77 2.24 <0.001
Reserve and honesty girls EPS 3.97±0.84*** 3.19±0.39 15.27 <0.001
Slow girls to run and play football with heels 5.59±0.49*** 5.26±0.76 4.72 <0.001
Lack of enforcement and complaints of girls EPS 4.63±0.75*** 4.25±0.77 5.11 <0.001
Difference between girls and boys in races 5.25±0.77*** 4.09±0.29 26.38 <0.001
Good work some girls /slow annoying everyone 4.18±0.68*** 3.90±0.80 3.71 <0.001
Non-athletic women's sports practices 5.50±0.50*** 1.45±0.50 82.83 <0.001
Hyperactive girls EPS 5.09±0.83*** 1.83±0.58 51.29 <0.001
Diversity and disturbance in EPS 5.19±0.69*** 1.28±0.45 77.18 <0.001
Disengagement 7.93±1.25*** 0.64±0.76 82.7 <0.001

*** Highly significant difference (P <0.001)

The results returned by the boys in the experimental group are were significantly higher than those provided by their counterparts in the control group. CG (P <0.001).

4. Discussion

Diversity and gender is a social constraint that appeal to students of both sexes consolidation to reduce the expenses of the state in connection with the implementation of infrastructure and promote ownership of knowledge related to social life. However, they can affect the collective behavior of girls and induce EPS disengagement depending on gender differences in practice and the engine performance of pupils of both sexes. To this end, the objective of this study was to verify the influence of diversity and gender on the disengagement in a particular discipline of secondary school EPS students in the city of Kinshasa. Moreover, the hypothesis was: diversity and gender in EPS favor the disengagement of humanities students in Kinshasa.

The results of this study show that girls in the experimental group suggest a significantly higher masculinity of EPS compared to the control group (1.81 ± 0.49 vs. 1.10 ± 0.31; P <0.001) (Table 1). Masculinity of EPS expressed by girls in the experimental group is certainly dependent on the psychological aspects related to age. Indeed, girls of the post-puberty group (teenagers) are in search of social identity and therefore have bumping behavior of some human activities in dominant motive such as EPS. This includes the fact that these girls design APSA which constitute the social practices of the EPS as body deformation activities. The BANTOU, an ethnic group in Africa, culture opposes the practice of APSA by girls to the extent that this practice causes a loss of femininity and disruption of female fertility. Disruption of female fertility induced by the practice of APSA was also noted by Legros and Rieu [5]. These authors reported that APSA reduces body fat to a dangerous level for conception.

The EPS for all is significantly revealed by the girls in the control group compared to their same -sex counterparts in the experimental group (5.79 ± 0.41 vs. 3.80 ± 0.67; P < 0.001) (Table 1). For all EPS leads to the teaching/learning process which should reduce the psychological and biological differences between girls and boys to promote coeducation. Indeed, during the Baccalaureate in Congo-Brazzaville, there is the addition of an implementation control equivalent to the level of performance that tends to improve girls grades. This is especially true in the French high school case.

The girls in the experimental group significantly perceive less need of endurance in APSA practice compared to those in the control group (2.75 ± 0.66 vs. 4.47 ± 0.50; P < 0.001) (Table 1). Any perceived usefulness of endurance in APSA practice the girls in the experimental group would be due to the lack of motivation induced partly by the pain experienced by the girls and the responsibility of their teachers in the choice of endurance activity training situations. The feeling of painful effects of stress results in functional disturbances of cardiovascular system (tachycardia) and breathing (dyspnea) [6].

The girls in the experimental group view APSA for girls significantly to a lesser extent compared to their counterparts in the control group (2.41 ± 0.75 vs. 3.41 ± 0.49; P < 0.001) (Table 1). This can be explained by the ignorance of the gendered organization of sports. In reality, the two genders have their respective preferred sports: women are over-represented in three activities (gymnastics, dance and skating when boys appear to participate more in team sports) [7].

These girls in the experimental group also exhibit a significantly greater perception of APSA for boys compared to the control group (1.16 ± 0.36 vs. 5.60 ± 2.41; P < 0.001) (Table 1). This important collection of APSA for boys is attributable to the effects of male-driven diversity which is encouraged by some teachers. In fact, diversity attracts the same low level of women involvement in activities which are labeled more masculine, such as bodybuilding (35 % of women), basketball (33%) or handball (31%) [7].

The girls in the experimental group, compared with those in the control group, express a less significantly view on fairness in girls and boys football (2.21 ± 0.41 vs. 3.49 ± 1.83; P <0.001) (Table 1). Certainly, this reflects masculine consideration of football in the parallel society in the integration of women into the practice of this activity. Indeed, football is part of masculine activities in competitive goals for social behavior decision, command, authority, thinking that develop self-confidence [8].

As for football, the girls in the experimental group significantly express the similarity of the agility of boys and girls in dance compared to their counterparts in the control group (2.48 ± 0.50 vs. 2.69 ± 0.46; P <0.001) (Table 1). Certainly, these results reflect the ignorance of the dance activities added to APSA together with the requirement of mobility and physical qualities [9] [10] [11].

The disengagement EPS girls in the experimental group was significantly higher than those in the control group (10.2 ± 1.26 vs. 1.41 ± 0.49; P < 0.001) (Table 1). This major withdrawal of girls in the experimental group is certainly due to the size of diversity. Indeed, the diversity situations in school physical and sports education do not always promote equality between boys and girls and could have a counter effect in role stereotyping. As it signifies ARTUS (Op. cit.), diversity is seen more as a problem to resolve in physical and sports education. In sports as in physical education, gender diversity is constantly faced with the dominant male model [12] and one wonders if it would no longer push girls particularly to drop out of traditional roles and to give up any form of ambition (including sports).

The boys in the experimental group significantly reveal masculinity of EPS compared to those in the control group (1.26 ± 0.32 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P < 0.001) (Table 2). This masculinity of the EPS can be explained by the APSA with more dominant male representatives in the educational projects of schools attended by the experimental subjects. These APSA require greater physical qualities for this gender relation to their higher value in androgen. Generally, it has been established that the games and sports labelled for males are built on the use and operation of physical qualities of strength, speed, endurance [7]. Berger [13] presented EPS as a male discipline for the reason that APSA are rooted in male social groups and exclude women from most practices.

The boys in the experimental group expressed significantly less of the need of agility in APSA practice than those in the control group (2.08 ± 0.28 vs. 5.69 ± 0.49; P <0.001) (Table 2). These boys do not furnish information on the speed and safety in APSA practice. Indeed, adolescents are provided with testosterone [14] which increases the speed of rapid contractions of muscle fibers with low oxidative potential [15]. This can be understood that a mere practice of APSA does not equip boys with an appropriate level of knowledge about physical qualities, modes of nervous and hormonal regulation. There is clear evidence that reduced weekly EPS lessons in the Democratic Republic of Congo hardly allows students to an appropriate level of accompanying knowledge. This explains the weakness of the educational building framework.

The usefulness of endurance in APSA practice shows a significant difference between the boys in the two groups (2.11 ± 0.31 vs. 5.67 ± 0.49; P < 0.001) (Table 2). This significant difference which is to the disadvantage of those in the experimental group reinforces the hypothesis that consequent ignorance of physical qualities of endurance, its forms and physiological factors determine a shorter APSA practice duration [16].

Reviews of boys in the experimental group were significantly less consequential compared to their counterparts in the control group regarding the APSA for girls (3.10 ± 0.3 vs 5.47 ± 0.52; P < 0.001) and APSA for boys (1.99 ± 0.29 vs. 3.59 ± 0.75; P < 0.001) (Table 2). The APSA for girls and boys reflect the gender-specific arrangement of sports practices under their preconception in relation to various social considerations. For them, thinking that some sports are reserved for girls or boys is about prejudice [17] [18].

These results indicate a significantly greater disengagement of the boys in the experimental group compared to those in the control group (7.93 ± 1.25 vs. 0.64 ± 0.76; P < 0.001) (Table 2). This remarkable disengagement among boys in the experimental group is due to the lack of implementation control and the failure to achieve their best performance.

The results concerning boys violence during PE lessons in Table 3 show that female students in the experimental group have significantly higher values compared to those in the control group (5.55 ± 0.54 vs 2.41; P <0.001) ( Table 3). This is a clear fact that the violence is caused by boys. Mary & Lagrange [16] stated that diversity sparks schoolboy violence notably in establishments belonging to the experimental group where violence would reflect a certain identity disarray to girls’ success.

Girls’ opinion on boys’ foul play behavior shows significantly higher values in the experimental group classes compared to control group classes (5.45 ± 8.25 vs 1.40 ± 0.49; P < 0.001) (Table 3). Boys’ foul play behavior is caused by non-compliance with principles and rules of APSA action and deviation from standards. Over the course of EPS lessons many rules are in place. Since these rules and standards are institutional, grouping, didactical, games-related, security or training, male students for sure use every opportunity not to comply with them and their behavior constitutes foul play actions.

Concerning gossiping, girls in the experimental group find that boys are talkative returning a significantly higher value than those in the control group do. (5.90 ± 0.30 vs 3.20 ± 0.40; P <0.001) (Table 3). The noise of boys can be attributed to the forfeiture of words with them. Indeed, Mosconi [19] notes that in co-ed classes, boys, other than creating discipline problems, tend to dominate didactic classes when they can use knowledge to indicate their values, or make noise to "stand out" in class when their academic position does not allow them to do so.

Moreover, the girls in the experimental group significantly show that boys have a sense of self-sufficiency that makes them believe they know everything (4. 92 ± 1.19 vs. 3.20; P <0.001) (Table 3). The feeling of self-sufficiency of the boys is due to an overestimation in the practice of APSA and the quest for supremacy over girls.

However, girls in the experimental group enjoy boys’ games, showing a significantly higher value than the control group does (5.73 ± 0.44 vs 4.21 ± 0.75; P < 0.001) (Table 3). This can be explained by the results they obtained in training activities. Mosconi [20] noted that there is an achievement gap between girls and boys. Cleuziou [21] also referred to the fact that boys are more active in APSA opposition and cooperation. The girls in the experimental group also indicated that the duration of a football game is important returning a higher value compared to those in the control group (5.53 ± 0.91 vs 2.39 ± 0.49; P < 0.001) (Table 3). The duration of a game is an important factor for it is related to the expectation of skills in this APSA and therefore motivation [22].

The opinions of the girls in the experimental group provided a predominant indicator that boys lack sportsmanship compared with those in the control group (5.53 ± 0.50 vs 2.80 ± 0.40; P < 0.001) (Table 3). These high values are related to boys’ dangerous tackles and they are less tolerant during EPS practices [7].

Boys’ violence in group classes is significantly revealed by the girls in the experimental group compared to those in the control group (5.48 ± 0.60 vs 2.40 ± 0.49; P < 0.001) (Table 3). Boys’ violence in class is attributable to symbolic violence phenomena related to the type of teachers and students that APSA transmits. Thorel and Necker [9] noted that, by means of a dual perspective (didactic and sociological), the relationship between the two genders and school violence is examined from beliefs, representations and practices of teachers. It is learnt through the standards that underlie them and are found in interactional situations.

The disengagement EPS was sharply raised by the girls in the experimental group compared to their counterparts in the control group (10.2 ± 1.26 vs. 1.41 ± 0.49; P < 0.001) (Table 3). This strong disengagement in the experimental group is attributable to the unfairness in the teaching /learning process and body poaching. The daily body poaching could be interpreted as a partial refusal of rationality, discipline, pervasive technicality in the field of EPS and positively contributes to build group identity through anecdotes, transgressions, conflicts and tensions, but it certainly contributes to girls’ EPS disengagement.

The boys in the experimental group revealed a significantly lower performance of girls in EPS compared with those in the control group (5.52 ± 0.52 vs. 4.65 ± 0.77; P < 0.001) (Table 4). This lower performance of girls in EPS is attributed to the inequalities between the two genders in EPS. In fact, it is clear from literature review on gender inequality at school, there are recurrent findings that girls perform better than boys at school except in sports [19] [20].

The opinions of the boys in the experimental group also exhibit a significantly higher value on the girls’ reservation and honesty in EPS compared with those in the control group (3.97 ± 0.84 vs. 3.19 ± 0.39; P <0.001) (Table 4). This is explained by the difference in behavior between school girls and boys. Indeed, Auduc [23] noted that girls work more, devote more time to their homework and go to bed early. In addition, the author meant the enjoyment of school work varies with sex and marked a higher rate of school nuisance in boys compared to girls (38% vs. 29%). This situation results in boys’ indiscipline and lightheartedness whereas girls, from a young age, face social expectations traditionally specific to their gender.

By contrast, these results point out that that girls are slower runners and play football with their heels. The results stated are significantly important in the two groups (5.59 ± 0.49 vs 5.26 ± 0.76; P <0.001) (Table 4). This slowness in running and this playing football with heels can be explained by the fact that at school, most APSA are taught in the masculine connotations. Coupey [24] also criticized the role of schools in creating inequalities between girls and boys by the choice of APSA. Confrontation can be explained by the difference and the conquest of the land that would be an obstacle for girls, which are not part of their physical properties. It may also explain the slow pace in the race and this game with heels football by morphological changes from puberty. Indeed, adolescents, having accumulated fat in the mid-section and breast [25] are heavy, slow in running and try to use contact surfaces to maintain balance to prevent falls and occurrence of injuries.

The boys in the experimental group also significantly mentioned a lack of enforcement and girls complaints in EPS compared with those in the control group (4.63 ± 0.75 vs. 4.25 ± 0.77; P < 0.001) (Table 4). This lack of enforcement and complaints are inherent rivalry and inequality developed between girls and boys in EPS. Fasquelle [26] found that although it is less unequal, so far it has shown that the students do not mingle much. Nevertheless, when girls and boys are required to mix in teams, they talk to each other and encourage more by gender. Through observations and interviews, it is noticeable that inequalities were more present in male APSA such as team sports.

The boys in the experimental group report a large deviation compared to those in the control group concerning the differences between girls and boys in running (5.25 ± 0.77 vs 4.09 ± 0.29; P < 0.001) (Table 4). This running performance gap between girls and boys is linked to puberty growth. Indeed, if the growth peak arrives earlier for girls, boys’ is obviously later after age 15 [27].

The boys in the experimental group significantly reveal more the good work of some girls/sluggishness annoying everyone than those in the control group (4.18 ± 3.90 ± 0.68 vs 0.80; P < 0.001) (Table 4). This certainly depends on the situation of these girls on the masculinity scale that allows them to act with boys as we have previously pointed out in one part of our masters research and other progress.

The non-athletic women's sports practices are significantly important evocation of the boys in the experimental group compared to those in the control group (5.50 ± 0.50 vs. 1.45 ± 0.50; P < 0.001) (Table 4). These non-athletic women's sports practices are certainly due to social environment and outside school. The practice of these female sports which are taught less at school that does not allow girls to compete with boys.

By contrast, the boys in the experimental group have a significantly greater notice of hyperactivity girls in EPS compared with those in the control group (5.09 ± 0.83 vs. 1.83 ± 0.58; P < 0.001) (Table 4). Girls’ hyperactivity in EPS results from the anxiety generated by boys who have no regard for them, show transgressive behavior, various frustrations. Girls’ hyperactivity in EPS may also be due to their situation throughout femininity leading to a form of deviance. Indeed, in co-ed class groups, teenagers are in search of social identity and frustrated with boys while they are androgynous, they take the side that leads to unrest [28].

The boys in the experimental group say much that diversity is a disturbing factor in EPS compared to their counterparts in the control group (5.19 ± 0.69 vs. 1.28 ± 0.45; P <0.001) (Table 4). This can be explained by the fact that boys and girls have trouble working together: each group is distinct in its respective gender pool during instructions or they are free to choose their partners.

The EPS disengagement among girls is significantly shown by the boys in the experimental group compared to those in the control group (7.93 ± 1.25 vs. 0.64 ± 0.76; P <0.001) (Table 4). Certainly, this disengagement among girls is due to the fact that school APSA activities are not neutral, or even better rather masculine. In this, Davisse and Louveau [29] highlighted that EPS discipline is a repository of gendered differences. Moreover, the existence of these differences in relation to physique and sports for girls and boys students poses problems in that the school system rather promotes the male sports model [30].

5. Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of diversity and gender on EPS disengagement of humanities students at Catholic schools in Kinshasa. This EPS disengagement is closely related to diversity and gender in EPS through verbatim. The results suggest that the disengagement was more important for both female and male humanities students at Catholic schools in Kinshasa than those at consular schools and Physical Education section. Thus, special attention should be directed towards a citizenship education promoting diversity and gender in EPS.


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